Epidémiologie de l'hydatidose et de la fasciolose chez l'animal et l'homme dans l'Est algérien
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Hydatidosis remains a significant public health concern in North Africa. A survey concerning variables potentially associated with family hydatidosis prevalence was conducted among Eastern Algeria households (wilaya of Constantine). The investigation aims to establish a preliminary work to update hydatidosis epidemiology and to highlight risk factors in urban and rural areas. A lifestyle questionnaire has been implemented through interviews of 1611 households of Constantine (urban area) and Aïn Abid (rural area). Factors associated with at least one family case of hydatidosis were analyzed using multivariate logistic models. 4.6% of urban households and 14.6% of rural households reported at least one case of hydatidosis. In the urban area, the slaughter of more than one sheep per year was associated (P<0.05) with hydatidosis. Moreover, the slaughter of sheep by a non-professional, the presence of stray dogs in the district and the possession of more than one dog tended (P<0.1) to be associated with the urban risk. In the rural area, home slaughter of sheep, presence of lesions on the lungs and/or the livers of slaughtered sheep and household members working in animal husbandry were associated with risk, while the variable “unfamiliarity with the name of the disease” was associated with the absence of risk. The study highlighted variables associated with family hydatidosis in urban and rural areas and the presence, within these areas, of main socio-ecological conditions able to maintain endemic disease. The survey showed that slaughter cattle are the species most affected by hydatidosis (10.2%) compared to sheep (03%) and goats (7.6%) with a higher frequency of 'liver for the three species. Fasciolosis is more frequent in cattle (5.77%) than in sheep (2.29%) and goats (1.65%). The survey of GPs has shown that men are more affected by hydatidosis that women with a sex ratio of 2 / 1, the lung damage is more frequent among younger than 18 years. Distomatose cases of human Fasciola hepatica are relatively rare. Of the 117 doctors interviewed, only 9.24% of diagnosed cases of distomatose. The search of Fasciola hepatica is undertaken in humans. Fasciolosis in ruminants should be treated to reduce economic losses. Strengthened health vigilance seems therefore necessary to implement in the surveyed region for a better control of the disease.