Aspects alimentaires et nutritionnels de la restauration collective en Algérie
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The main aim of our thesis was the evaluation of the nutritional quality of food offers (FO) in collective restoration (CR) through the food and nutritional aspects of the offers of the university canteens (UCant). The CR is essential in various sectors related to various populations. The FO of UCant (nearly 400 units) concerned in 2017/2018 a population of 1.5 million students and this population is expected to grow more. The nutritional evaluation of the FO of UCant is important in the nutritional prevention of health issues and considering the importance of the population concerned and the budgets mobilized. The evaluation makes it possible to make corrections to the actions of university Services through UCant. The nutritional evaluation of the FO is based on data recorded on Sheets of Daily Consumption (SDC) using nutritional recommendations as standards. This evaluation includes energy intake, composition in major nutrients, their energy contribution, amounts of protids and lipids from animal origin, calcium, phosphorus, phosphocalcic ratio, iron, 6 vitamins (A, D, B1, B2, PP and C), amino-acids (Lysine, sulfur amino-acids, threonine and tryptophan), fatty-acids ω3 and ω6, sodium and additive sugars, calculations of Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and Mean Excess Ratio (MER) and the profiling of constitutive food of the FO according to the Score of adequacy to the nutritional recommendations (SAIN) and the score of contributions in nutrients to be limited (LIM). The procedure of calculation was defined in the framework of our first studies during the Nineties and was used for the realization of several nutritional evaluations of food offers to the level of cribs, kindergartens, the three stages of state education, the university canteens and the business canteens. In spite of the difficulties of administrative nature for the data collection, the nutritional evaluation concerned several time series over several academic years, several months and several seasons: 1978-1980, 1996,2011,2014,2016. The FO of UCant seems too energetic, with insufficiencies in lipids, certain vitamins, iron and calcium. It calls upon little diversified food ingredients. The cereal products and particularly bread constitute the basic elements of them. The energy contributions exceed even the highest recommendations whereas the cover in other nutrients is insufficient. A better choice of constitutive food of the FO is possible to improve its nutritional quality. In order to systematize the nutritional evaluations of the FO, we propose these tools: Nutritional recommendations; New SDC; Data bank on food for the CR; Procedure of calculations for food plans and ratios; Software for the development of food plans and the nutritional analysis of food offers; Audit process and follow-up of the quality of restoration services, nutritional HACCP, Evaluation of the satisfaction degree of the nourished people. We think that the current policy of subsidy in restoration must be revised because it is possible to consider alternatives without questioning of the principle of subsidy. We also think that it is possible to lead general actions at the level of CR, and in UCant in particular, in order to enhance the level of collective restoration in order to increase its social value and quality.