Gain de poids au cours de la grossesse
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The purpose of our work is to study weight gain in pregnant women and its impact on the health of the mother and child in Constantine (Algeria). This study focused on the follow-up during the nine months of pregnancy of women attending prenatal consultation services in Constantine between December 2013 and July 2016. This is a longitudinal study of a cohort of 300 pregnant women aged 19 to 43 years. The average total weight gain observed is 9.0 ± 5.7 kg. A percentage of 47.3% of women have inadequate weight gain, 27.7% have excessive weight gain and only 25.0% of women have weight gain consistent with the recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive weight gain is more frequent in nulliparous women, women with a high level of education, who had a high birth weight, obese before pregnancy and who reported not knowing the ideal gain. This weight gain is also more common among women who increased their food consumption, not practicing physical activity and with a stressful environment. Inadequate weight gain is more frequent in women with a low birth weight, obese before pregnancy, with a low level of education and who reported not knowing the ideal gain, have sympathetic signs, have food aversions, and have insufficient caloric, vitamin, and mineral intakes. This gain is also common among women with a low duration of sleep and with a stressful environment. Maternal and neonatal consequences were noted. Thus, this study confirmed that excessive weight gain is a risk factor for gestational hypertension, edema, term exceeded, caesarean delivery and newborns with a big weight. Insufficient weight gain increases the risk of gestational anemia, preterm and low birth weight. Adequate weight gain during pregnancy is a condition favoring the birth of a healthy baby and the future well-being of the child and the mother. Thus, the promotion of health through the prevention of inadequate weight gain (excessive or insufficient) during pregnancy is an important issue given the deleterious consequences for the newborn and mother in the short and long term.