Comportements biologique, physiologique, biochimique et l’activité biologique de quatre variétés d’olivier (Olea europeae L.) dans l’Est Algérien.
Himour ép Cherrier, Sara
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The present study focuses on the biological, physiological and biochemical behavior of the cultivated olive tree, Olea europaea L., represented by four varieties sampled at the Maazouzi Lakhdar station, Mila: Sigoise, Rougette, Chemlel and Dathier. The morphological characterizations (quantitative and qualitative), relating to the leaves, fruits and cores, described in the descriptors of the International Olive Council (IOC, 2003), revealed differences between the varieties. The set of morphological traits assessed during the three years of study (2013-2014- 2015) revealed a significant difference between the varieties studied confirmed by coefficients of variation ranging from 2.81% to 39.14%. Positive correlations between mean precipitation, duration of insolations and morphological characters ranged from r = 0.839 to 0.946, and negative for fruit width and nuclei with temperature. The results of the analysis of the biochemical characterization data revealed a great difference between the varieties. The most important lipid content was recorded in Sigoise leaf and fruit, Rougette gave the best sugar content in the leaves, as well as in Chemlel fruits. The qualitative analysis performed by phytochemical screening revealed the presence of several families of natural compounds in both organs. Rougette has been the dominant variety for total leaf and fruit phenol and flavonoid content, and Dathier for tannins. Quantitative analyzes of the phenolic compounds identified in the hydromethanol extracts by HPLC identified four compounds: fumaric acid, gallic acid, oleuropein and caffeic acid, seven compounds in the leaves: fumaric acid, gallic acid, oleuropein, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid and t-3 hydroxyroamic acid, with a significant dominance of Oleuropein. The evaluation of the biological potential of leaf and fruit extracts, revealed a significant anticoagulant activity in Chemlel for both organs and an antioxidant power of interest in Rougette leaves and Sigois fruits. All extracts have an important antibacterial power, extracts of leaf at Rougette gave a better zone of inhibition against S. aureus.