Déterminants de l’état nutritionnel des enfants à Tébessa.
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Our work consists of a retrospective survey, which aims to assess nutritional status and identify risk factors for malnutrition and overweight among children aged from 1 to 24 months in Tebessa. The study involved 2000 healthy children, aged from 1 to 24 months, randomly selected. For each subject we collected, by questionnaire, information on the characteristics of the child, the mother and the household. Dietary practices including breastfeeding type, age and food diversification foods were sought. Children's dietary intake of energy, macronutrients was estimated by the 24-hour recall. The assessment of nutritional status was performed by calculating anthropometric indices. For the classification of children we have retained the pediatric references of WHO (2006). The results reveal the simultaneous presence of malnutrition and overweight. Malnutrition is found in 17.55% of children. It is more common in children from 1 to 6 months with 79.48%. Its rate decreases with the age of the children (r = - 0.317, p = 0.027). Overweight affects 29.65% of the total population. Overweight alone affects 17.95% of children and obesity 11.7% of them. Its rate increases with the age of the children (r = 0.012, p = 0.003). It is more common in children aged 12 to 24 months with 76.21%. The study of the determinants of children's nutritional status shows a significant link between malnutrition and some parental risk factors, including early motherhood, maternal malnutrition and inadequate GWG. With respect to individual risk factors, malnutrition appears to be significantly associated with prematurity and low birth weight. In addition, we noted a significant link with the occurrence of anemia and acute diarrhea. Social factors contribute to child malnutrition, through the low social level, and the low level of education of mothers. For dietary factors, malnutrition appears to be significantly associated with breastfeeding, especially for children with low birth weights. It should also be noted that malnourished children have average daily energy and protein intake, which is significantly lower compared to children of normal nutritional status. For overweight and childhood obesity, maternal overweight, excessive GWG, and maternal diabetes are the main risk factors for parenting. Among the individual determinants, a significant link was observed with the female sex. High birth weight, such as low birth weight, are also risk factors. Regarding socio-economic factors, overweight is significantly more common in households with high social and educational levels. This link is stronger, as the size of households and the number of children decreas. Artificial breastfeeding and the early age of introduction of weaning foods are the main dietary risk factors. It should also be noted that overweight children consume more sugary drinks, less dairy products and have average daily energy, carbohydrate and fat intake, significantly higher than normal weight children. Malnutrition has long been a priority concern in Algeria, as in most developing countries. At present, the nutrition transition process has changed this situation, with a double burden of underweight and overweight. Overweight and obesity have become a public health problem that threatens children in Algeria.