Panification traditionnelle sans gluten type « khobz eddar »
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The traditional bread ""khobz eddar"" is an important food for the Algerian population, due to the fact that it is a homemade product produced using natural ingredients. Developing this product with gluten-free ingredients for celiac patients is a challenge that deserves to be investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a natural gluten-free product for Algerian celiac patients based on the traditional ""khobz eddar"" bread flow diagram. Hydro-thermal treatment, starches (tapioca and corn) and hydrocolloїds (agar-agar, carob gum and arabic gum) as well as Moringa leaves and pomegranate seed powder are studied for their improving potential of the physical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of gluten-free ""khobz eddar"" bread type. The household’s survey in the commune of Constantine allowed to establish the flow diagram of the targeted bread. The response surface methodology optimized gluten-free production based on a rice/Fieldbeans and corn/Fieldbeans formula, improved by a treated rice and treated corn, respectively. The results showed a better volume and hardness of corn-based bread compared to that of rice. On the other hand, the sensory results depicted a better appreciation of rice-based bread than that of corn. The approach through a definitive screening design was used to locate the effect of starch/hydrocolloids interactions on the technological quality of gluten-free bread based on the rice/Fieldbeans formula. The effect of additive interactions has been reported and optimum bread has been technologically and sensorly characterized. The results show that gum arabic has an improving effect on all the quality parameters. Two types of plant ingredients were used to enrich gluten-free bread, pomegranate seed powder and Moringa leaf powder, with different levels (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% w/w). The technological and sensory quality was evaluated. The assay of total polyphenols and the determination of antioxidant activity by different methods were performed. The results reported optimums with additions of 7.5% of the pomegranate seed powder and 2.5% of the Moringa leaf powder. The results obtained in the different parts of this study are of high interest and deserve to be developed and a complementary work has been done in order to diversify the gluten-free formulation. Combinations between improvers were carried out, three types of formulations were proposed: a first combination of treated rice and different levels of gum arabic (0.5, 1 and 1.5%), a second one with treated rice combined with three levels of the Pomegranate seed powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%) and a third one between processed rice and three levels of Moringa leaf powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The main results indicate that for all combinations, the specific volume increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to optimum breads with single improvers and gluten-free control bread. The best results for texture parameters are thus obtained with gluten-free breads made by incorporating improvers in combination. The best combination between improvers is obtained with treated rice and 1.5% of arabic gum, then comes the combination of rice treated with 5% of the seed powder of pomegranates and finally the combination of rice treated with 2.5 % of the powder from Moringa leaves.