Scores et indices nutritionnels, un moyen pour évaluer la qualité de l’alimentation des adolescents
Dahel-Mekhancha, Corinne Colette
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The objective of our study is to evaluate dietary diversity and adequacy to nutritional recommendations in adolescents (Constantine, 2016) by nutritional scores. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey in Constantine in 2016 in 1 126 adolescents aged 11 to 19 (55.6% girls) attending 13 middle and high schools. Anthropometric data were collected from the registers of screening and monitoring units of school health. A Food Diversity Score (SDA) was calculated by counting the number of food groups consumed the day before. We have defined 9 food groups (FAO, 2013). In order to assess adequacy to nutritional recommendations, we calculated the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) which is the average of Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) calculated for energy and 16 nutrients (Hatloy et al., 1998). The SDA was interpreted in relation to the mean value : aboveaverage scores reflect a diverse diet. The reference value for MAR and NARs is ""one"". These scores were analyzed according to 4 factors associated with the quality of the diet: age, gender, state-weight status and socio-economic level (NSE). The average SDA is 3.97 ± 1.25. It is shifted to the lowest values compared to the theoretical average value of 4.5. Inadequate scores (SDA≤4) concern 65.0% of subjects. The average MAR is 0.59 ± 0.20. Adolescents with values below ""one"" represent 79.1%. The highest NAR is for simple carbohydrates (4 times> ANC). The lowest NAR is the intake of vitamins A and D and calcium. The phosphocalcic ratio is low. The dietary diversity of adolescents decreases significantly with age and increases with NSE. It influences positively the adequacy to nutritional recommendations that is higher in boys. BMI increases consumption of sweet products, tubers and fruits. A positive and significant correlation was recorded between SDA and MAR (r = 0.55, p <0.0001). The diet of the adolescents surveyed is insufficiently diversified and far from nutritional recommendations for most nutrients, for simple sugars and phosphorus. An awareness of teenagers to reduce the consumption of empty calories and encourage that of fruits and vegetables is necessary.