Application des marqueurs moléculaires à la gestion des ressources génétiques d’une accession de blé dur algérien (Triticum durum Desf.).
واصفات البياناتعرض سجل المادة الكامل
In this work, we studied an accession of durum wheat grown in Algeria with two varieties: leucomeulon and reichenbachi, on which phenological, morpho-physiological and molecular characteristics were measured. The different results obtained made it possible to identify several distinct groups within this accession. The phenological and morpho-physiological parameters revealed a certain intra- and inter-varietal variability. Thus, most genotypes of the reichenbachi variety proved to be more effective for morphological and physiological parameters, whereas many genotypes of the leucomelon variety gave a better yield. Across the accession, molecular markers RAPD and ISSR analyzed 50 selected genotypes belonging to the two varieties. For the RAPD markers, on 2 primers used, 2 showed monomorphic bands and a high percentage of polymorphism of 92.10%. Moreover, the dendrogram divided the different genotypes into two large distinct clusters of similarity located between 71, 2 and 100%. Of these 50 genotypes, 20 were retained and analyzed using 2 other primers which generated 19 polymorphic markers with a high percentage of polymorphism equal to 95%. For the ISSR markers, the primers used for the 50 selected genotypes were found to be polymorphic with a total of 32 reproducible bands of which 22 were polymorphic (68.7%). The dendrogram of molecular markers ISSR revealed two distinct heterogeneous groups of similarity slightly less than 68%. Furthermore, the hierarchical classification of the two RAPD and ISSR markers of the 50 genotypes studied made it possible to distinguish between two main groups with a similarity between 33 and 97.4%. The evaluation of genetic diversity using the two molecular markers RAPD and ISSR used is more discriminating for RAPD, which showed an important inter-varietal genetic polymorphism.We found that the distribution of the 50 genotypes tested was based on their botanical variety. In conclusion, the study of the phenological, morpho-physiological, yield and molecular parameters analyzed by the various techniques and methods revealed certain inter varietal variability, but within each of the two varieties, the genotypes were genetically close.