Application des marqueurs moléculaires à la gestion des ressources génétiques d’une accession de blé dur algérien (Triticum durum Desf.).
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In this work, we studied an accession of durum wheat grown in Algeria with two varieties: leucomeulon and reichenbachi, on which phenological, morpho-physiological and molecular characteristics were measured. The different results obtained made it possible to identify several distinct groups within this accession. The phenological and morpho-physiological parameters revealed a certain intra- and inter-varietal variability. Thus, most genotypes of the reichenbachi variety proved to be more effective for morphological and physiological parameters, whereas many genotypes of the leucomelon variety gave a better yield. Across the accession, molecular markers RAPD and ISSR analyzed 50 selected genotypes belonging to the two varieties. For the RAPD markers, on 2 primers used, 2 showed monomorphic bands and a high percentage of polymorphism of 92.10%. Moreover, the dendrogram divided the different genotypes into two large distinct clusters of similarity located between 71, 2 and 100%. Of these 50 genotypes, 20 were retained and analyzed using 2 other primers which generated 19 polymorphic markers with a high percentage of polymorphism equal to 95%. For the ISSR markers, the primers used for the 50 selected genotypes were found to be polymorphic with a total of 32 reproducible bands of which 22 were polymorphic (68.7%). The dendrogram of molecular markers ISSR revealed two distinct heterogeneous groups of similarity slightly less than 68%. Furthermore, the hierarchical classification of the two RAPD and ISSR markers of the 50 genotypes studied made it possible to distinguish between two main groups with a similarity between 33 and 97.4%. The evaluation of genetic diversity using the two molecular markers RAPD and ISSR used is more discriminating for RAPD, which showed an important inter-varietal genetic polymorphism.We found that the distribution of the 50 genotypes tested was based on their botanical variety. In conclusion, the study of the phenological, morpho-physiological, yield and molecular parameters analyzed by the various techniques and methods revealed certain inter varietal variability, but within each of the two varieties, the genotypes were genetically close.