Evaluation des propriétés biopharmacologiques, standardisation chimique et valorisation des agroressources fonctionnelles cas de Vitis vinifera, Punica granatum, Citrus aurantium et Opuntia ficus-indica.
Zeghad ep Bououden, Nadia
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The present work was based on the valorization of agroresources of four fruits grown locally in Algeria; Vitis vinifera, Punica granatum, Citrus aurantium and Opuntia ficus-indica by the determination of their molecular characterizations and biological activities. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the selected fruits were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, healing and antihyperlipidemic activities as well as their toxic potential. A chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS was performed and supplemented by a quantitative evaluation of the total phenols, flavonoïds, flavonols, condensed and hydrolysable tannins. The results of the quantitative analysis show that the levels of the of Vitis vinifera fruit extract on phenolic compounds are significantly higher than those of other fruits. The results of the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by a bargaptene (coumarin) for the extract of Punica granatum and by the phenolic acids and flavonoïds for the other extracts. The antioxidant activity (DPPH•, ABTS•+, FRAP, ORAC, TBARS, NO•) evaluated in vitro showed that the antioxidant potential of the Vitis vinifera extract is the most important compared to the other extracts. The Punica granatum extract has also a potential antioxidant activity but it remains less important than that of the previous species. The Vitis vinifera and Punica granatum extracts showed an analgesic effect on the three tests (torsion, hot plate and tail immersion), of which the potential to reduce the pain was statistically comparable in both extracts and was most evident in the torsion test. On the other hand, the results of the evaluation of the healing activity in the rabbits showed that the Punica granatum extract and at lesser degree that of Vitis vinifera accelerate the process of healing of excisional wounds and burns compared to the control, and was even superior to that of commercial healing cream (Cicatryl®). The results of the antihyperlipidemic activity showed that the Vitis vinifera and Punica granatum extracts normalized the lipidemic profile in mice made hyperlipidemic compared to the control. Finally, the results of the acute toxicity in mice demonstrated that the Vitis vinifera and Punica granatum extracts are free of any signs of toxicity at the maximum dose prescribed.