Caractérisation phytochimique et évaluation des activités biologiques de Cleome arabica.
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Cleome arabica ssp arabica, a threatened desert plant, has been subjected to the phytochemical and pharmacological screening. Hydroalcoholic extracts from different parts (leaves, seeds and roots) of C. arabica have been tested for their antioxidant, analgesic and wound healing activities, as well as their toxic potential. Quantitative evaluation of the total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanidins contents of the different extracts were made and completed with chromatographic HPLC/DAD/SM analysis. The obtained results revealed that leaves extract was characterized by a highly content in phenolic compounds, compared to other extracts. Hydroalcoholic extract of the three parts of plant were marked by the presence of flavonoids, specially of flavonols type (quercetin, keampferol, and isorhamnetin). Phenolic acids content is marked by the presence in the seeds extract of ferulic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, and para-coumaric acid, and in the roots extract of tricaffeoylquinic, gallic, ferulic, and vanillic acids. Evaluation of antioxidant effect made by the three in vitro tests (DPPH, FRAP and Phosphomolybdenum) showed a highly antioxidant activity of the leaves extract compared to those of seeds and roots. A direct correlation was found between phenol total and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity. The effectives doses obtained by three pain tests, namely tail flick, hot plate and acetic acid test were 291,84mg/Kg, 848,53mg/Kg and 683,52mg/Kg respectively. Analgesic activity of the aerial part of C. arabica was found to be dose- dependent. The Hydroalcoholic extract displayed on excision and thermal healing activities wounds. The wound healing effect of C.arabica was significantly more important than that of a commercial ointment used as a positive control (Cicatryl®). Toxicity assays (acute toxicity, and hemolytic effect) have showed that Hydroalcoholic extract of aerial part of C. arabica is safe at the maximal described doses.