Lait et produits laitiers
Derouiche ép Belamri, Meriem
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The present study consists of identifying the various forms of milk utilization and the various traditional practices of consumption, processing and conservation through a survey 199 of 1100 households in Tebessa. To deduce the manufacturing diagrams of the various traditional products manufactured in the region and to check the manufacturing diagrams of some products that are estimated to be little or unknown and to characterize them. The breeding in dairy farms is unproductive because it mostly extensive. These breeding are mostly family and located mainly in rural areas. The consumer population system is characterized by a great diversity of products, raw or processed products, local and imported, industrial or traditional. The consumption rate is higher in rural areas; the consumption of fresh milk and traditional products is concentrated in rural areas, while industrial products are consumed mainly by urban. This rate is much higher in rural areas by 1420 ± 250,4 milk equivalent/year against 548 ± 167,3 milk equivalent/year, in the urban environment. On the other hand, the average consumption of an individual in the Tebessa is estimated at 910 eq kg of milk / year, with a distinction that shows superiority in rural areas, close to 340 eq of milk / year against 145 eq of milk / yr/ year. The results show a negative correlation between the levels of consumption of milk and its derivatives and the density of population. Twelve traditional products have been cited by the investigation: klila ( ,)كليلةbouhezza ( ,بوهزةmichouna ( ,)ميشونةjben ( ,)جبنrayeb ( ,)رايبlben ( ,)لبنzebda ( ,)زبدةdhen ( ,)دهانlba ( ,)لباrob ( ,)الربberzguen ( )برزقنet hamloki )).حملوقي Manufacture of traditional products is carried out mainly in the rural areas. The technology of the processing of milk depends on the nature of the product. Rob and berzguen are characterized by their high levels of carbohydrates and fat and low in protein. The microbiological quality of these products is generally acceptable. Rob has a soft texture, strong flavor, with a complex and spicy taste, while a berzguen is firm paste, brown color and sweet flavor. michouna is a fresh cheese has a total solids ranging between 461g / kg and 472g / kg. The fat rate is between 175g / kg and 205g / kg. Its hygienic quality is satisfactory. The michouna is a soft paste cheese, with a color that varies between white and yellowishwhite, and firm texture.