Etudes comparatives des souches d'escherichia coli aviares et humaines
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Escherichia coli infections or colibacillosis continue to be always a major cause of economic losses for poultry farms. Apart from the pathogens of Escherichia coli that are responsible for it, it is important to do shed light on the strains Escherichia coli saprophytes antibiotic-resistant wich are responsible for therapeutic failures and wich are representing the main source of the spread of this antibiotic resistance, through resistant genes, thus ensuring their transmission to other saprophytic agents and pathogenic in humans as well as in poultry (in particular) and animals (in general). In this study, we show the emergence of a multiresistance through the resistance profile of two collections of E. coli poultry Experimental (ELEX1 and ELEX2) to the 6 Quinolones tested (Flumequine (UB), Pefloxacin (PEF), Norfloxacin (NOR), Enrofloxacin (EN), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), and experimental avian influenza vaccines (ELEX1 and ELEX2), as well as a multiresistance through the resistance profile of two collections of E. coli Poultry and Humain to the 40 antibiotics tested (Ampicillin (AMX), Piperacillin (PRL), Ticarcillin (TC), Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid (AMC), Cefalexin (CN30), Cefazoline (CZ), Cefalotine (CF) Cefepaxime (CTX), Cefotaxime (CRT), Cefitaxone (FOX), Ceftazidime (CAZ), Cefixime (CFM), Aztreonam ), Gentamycin (CN10), Tobramycin (TOB), Amikacin (AK), Kanamycin (K), Netilmicin (NET), Streptomycin (S), Tetracycline (TE), Doxyciline (DXT), Nalidixic Acid NA), Flumequine (UB), Pefloxacin (PEF), Norfloxacin (NOR), Ofloxacin (OFX), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Sulfonamides (SSS), Trimethoprim (TMP), Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole Chloramphenicol (C), Fosfomycin (FF), Nitofurantoines (F)). Out of a total of 2635 samples, of which 264 were taken from the two experimental poultry farms (108 for ELEX1 and 156 for ELEX2), 600 collected from the 12 broiler farms (from the 06 communes of the wilaya of Constantine) and 1771 collected from patients of CHU of Constantine (hospital and ambulatory), we obtained 291 of antibiotic-resistant E. Coli strains, including 46 antibiotic-resistant E. Coli strains to the 06 quinolones (for the two collections of E. coli Experimental), 120/209 of E. coli strains (for E. coli aviary strains) and 125 of E. coli strains (for E. coli Human strains) to the 40 antibiotics tested. From the different resistance profiles obtained, the emergence of several resistance profiles follow a selection pressure for antibiotics by misuse of the latter in veterinary medicine and in human medicine (upstream) but also to the dissemination of resistance genes by failure to respect hygienic measures (downstream) and which remain the business of all.Therefore antibiotic resistance monitoring is required at all levels and at all times by the systematic application of ""broad-spectrum antibiogram » on commensal and pathogenic bacterial populations.