Diversité biologique dans les Triticum et Hordeum , possibilités de création d’une nouvelle variabilité génétique.
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The aim of this study is to characterize and first express the biological diversity of a number of the genotypes of the Triticum and Hordeum genus in order to know the basic traits that can be exploited in the improvement of these cereals. In this context 10 cultivars of hard wheat Triticum durum Desf., 6 of wheat Triticum aestivum L. and 6 others of barley Hordeum vulgare L. have been experimented for several successive years. The cultivation is carried out in pots on agricultural soil and the tests are carried out in the glasshouse of the biopole at Mentouri University under semi-controlled conditions. Thus, a number of characteristics related to the vegetative apparatus, the reproductive system and the grain are monitored throughout the life cycle of the plant that is to say from seeding to Maturation of the caryopses. In addition to the phenological aspects adopted by UPOV in the framework of the DSH and expressed by the Soltner (1982 and 2005) model, the characterization concerned, in order to determine relative precisely the duration of expression of each development phase, some adaptation traits A cross-breeding trial between varieties of each species is then taken in the second step with the aim of creating variability. The findings suggest a great intra and inter-specific biological diversity represented particularly by certain basic characteristics such as precocity glaucescence and others relative to the production. They also reveal a wide variability in the heritage of available cereal genetic resources that can be easily exploited in the creation of a new variety in wheat and barley. This is demonstrated through our trial or hybrids are obtained by the approach pollinating method.