Contribution à l’étude des facteurs de risque des pathologies dominantes en élevage laitier dans les wilayas de Biskra et de Constantine
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This study that extends from 2012 to 2015, is a contribution to the study of dominant pathologies risk factors among cattle and camel herds. It is performed via surveys among 62 cattle farms in the wilayas of Biskra (n=56) and Constantine (n=6), and 10 camel herds in the region of Biskra. Also, physicochemical and microbiological analyses including the detection and enumera tion of (Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella, molds and yeasts) were realized on samples of milk and animal feeds. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 18 and 20. The investigations either in Biskra, or Constantine, revealed several deficiencies in livestock hygiene and feeding, the mycological and possibly mycotoxinic risks are very high.The microbiological quality of analyzed milk and water samples, is generally acceptable concerning Salmonella and complies with the recommendations of A.O.J.R. (Salmonella = Zero). However, contamination of milk by the kind Staphylocuccus seems to be high, thus giving evidence of the existence of several cases of subclinical mastitis in cows and she-camels, and alarms us the existence of high risk of human contaminations. The improvement of dairy farming in the regions of Biskra and Constantine, deserves more efforts, either from the competent authorities, through vulgarization sessions, and register visits, or from the breeders, who should be better informed on this sector, ask for the support of communal vulgarization officers, and finally, respect the modern cattle industry standards and enhanced control of the suitable rationing methods of their livestock. The region of Biskra, is more adequate to expect a rapid improvement of periurban breeding of camel, but there remains much to control the dominant camelids pathologies and related risk factors, particularly by stricter management of herds feeding.