Contribution au diagnostic de la theilériose chez les bovins dans l’Est algérien
Benchikh Elfgoun, Mohamed Cherif
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The present study carried out in the region of El Eulma (North-eastern Algeria) showed a highest prevalence (81.9%) of theileriosis (Theileria. annulata infection) among the piroplasmosis, the coinfection between theileriosis and babesiosis (B. bovis) are frequent (14.9%). The number of the highest cases (45) has parasitemia between 0.1 - 4.99%. A total of 180 and 134 blood samples from 21 farms were collected in April and November 2015 (before and after the tropical theileriosis season; respectively) in the region of El Eulma (Sétif). Molecular prevalence (38.9 and 50% in April and November; respectively) was higher than those by Giemsa stained blood smear (17 and 16.4%, before and after tropical theileriosis season; respectively) (p<0.001 ). Exotic breeds were more infected than local breeds in the first visit (p=0.003), while during the second visit no significant difference was detected (p=0.226). This prevalence is lower in cattle less than one year (p=0,117; 0,270 in April and November; respectively). Molecular prevalence was significantly higher in females (44.7%) than in males (22.9%) (p<0.008) during the first visit. No influence of type of livestock or the walls statements was detected. The sequences of genes Algerian Tams1 (96.1 to 98.9%, identity values) have a relationship with the Mauritanian, Tunisian and Egyptian sequences. The biochemical and haematological study conducted on 40 healthy cattle and 40 clinically infected showed that the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, glucose, albumin, and total protein decrease significantly (p=0.005; 0.008, 0.03, 0.048, 0.002, 0.027 and 0.018; respectively) in clinically infected Montbeliard breed with Theileria annulata. All infected animals have a total and direct bilirubin concentration increase significantly (p<0.001). The erythrocytes, haemoglobin, and haematocrit crossbreed cattle concentration decrease significantly (p=0.027; 0.003 and <0.001; respectively). Two types of anaemia were detected: hypochromic microcytic anaemia in Montbeliard clinically infected cattle and normochromic normocytic anaemia in infected local and cross breed cattle. The tropical theileriosis impact study in Skikda region (northern Algeria) showed a decrease in milk production in 10 local breed cattle infected with Theileria annulata in summer 2015. The decrease in weekly milk production estimated for two months was 2.76 L / day / cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk production. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 AD (US $ 1.02) / day / sick cow. The relative variation of milk production showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72 to 0.76% on day 21.