Surveillance epidemiologique des principales zoonoses dans la wilaya de Skikda
Kayoueche, Fatima Zohra
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Algeria, like other OIE member countries and WHO, has developed epidemiological surveillance networks across all wilayas to combat zoonoses that cause animal health and public health problems. Zoonoses are the major concern of veterinary and human health services. The objective of this work is i. To update the epidemiology of rabies, tuberculosis (TB) and animal brucellosis, ii. To assess the functioning of the RES in the Skikda region, as well as its critical points, iii. To take stock of the epidemiological situation of these zoonoses in humans. A first survey was carried out with the services of the Directorate of Agricultural Services (DSA), where data on the epidemiological situation of zoonoses were collected from the archives (2011 to 2015). A second survey was carried out among 76 veterinary practitioners (private and state), the questionnaire focused on the knowledge and functioning of the RES. A third survey focused on zoonoses in humans for 5 successive years using data from the CSP (2011 to 2015). The fourth survey was carried out among 14 doctors (SEMEP) of the DSP on the evolution of rabies, tuberculosis and brucellosis in humans and the knowledge of animal RES. Data processing was done with the Excel 2007 software for the DSA and DSP surveys, and the SPSS version 24 software for surveys of veterinarians and doctors. In 5 years, no cases of brucellosis and / or tuberculosis have been recorded in sheep and goats. Cases of rabies declined from 2011 to 2015, the incidence rate fell from 0.012% in 2011 to 0.006% in 2015. The incidence rate of bovine TB increased from 0.013% in 2011 to 0.035% in 2015. As for the incidence rate of brucellosis of 0.0005%, it doubled in 2015. By analyzing data on incidence rates of the main zoonoses we see a re-emergence of tuberculosis In bovines and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (PET) in humans, from 258 cases in 2011to 361ca ses in2015. The eradication of major zoonotic diseases can not be achieved without close cooperation between the DSA and the DSP. Awareness of livestock keepers and the human population goes hand in hand with the application of zoonotic control measures (screening, vaccination) in order to reduce the risks.